3) Case studies
Municipality of Bologna - Designer Mario Cucinella
The new single seat of the Municipality of Bologna was created by the architect Mario Cucinella's studio between 2003 and 2008. The concept of the building stems from the fragmentation of the volume into three distinct blocks of different heights, one 12 high, one 10 high and the last 8 floors high. On the ground floor of the structure there are local commercial spaces and services, such as a kindergarten, a bank and a restaurant. The other floors house the offices of the municipality.
The shielding system, which characterizes the complex, is composed of a metal roof that covers all three buildings, which is almost reminiscent of a sail: in this way the structure remains raised with respect to the roof level of about three meters and is supported by steel columns, which also support a metal frame, equipped with bracing, which supports the sunscreens, made from aluminum tubulars. The shading of the sunscreens is fixed and therefore not adjustable; precisely for this reason, already in the design phase of the structure, the inclination of the pitch and the position of the tubulars were chosen to optimize the shielding. The system covers the facade but also covers the terrace on the roof of the 12-storey building, where machinery and systems are positioned: all this to reduce the contribution of heat, so as to improve the operating conditions of the machines. The facades facing east and west are not equipped with shielding, but solar control silk-screened glass has been installed; to avoid glare, an internal roller blind system was chosen, which have a light transmission coefficient of 14% and an energy transmission factor of 23%.
Markthauser - Massimiliano Fuksas
The building, located in the center of the city of Mainz in Germany, was completed in 2008 by the Fuksas studio. The building faces a historic square, a place characterized by the presence of eclectic and historic buildings, which are almost all reconstructions. Fuksas' idea was to "create a building with a historical sense but without rhetoric".
The most innovative aspect of the building is the external layer, the second skin: the laminated white ceramic surface covers the structure almost completely, and is made up of many uneven windows and openings, while leaving the ancient facade on the front free and visible .
The shielding system is continuous but at the same time filtering. The facade structure is made by means of aluminum uprights connected to the concrete slabs; glass and opaque parts are inserted alternately on this metal frame.
Building U15 - Cino Zucchi Architetti
The project pays great attention to the issue of energy efficiency, therefore to solar orientation and environmental quality.
The structure of the envelope is made up of a double skin: it is therefore divided into an internal wall, completely transparent, which acts as a continuous facade and where frames and surfaces come together in a single element with curvilinear shapes, and an external part consisting of a fixed sunscreen system, with perforated aluminum sheet panels. The shades of the panels range from bronze to gold, and these colors have been chosen both as a decorative element and as protection from direct sunlight. Each individual solar shading panel is specifically studied and is inserted in the building with a precise orientation, depending on the intended internal use.
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