How to extricate oneself from the regulations to install a bioclimatic greenhouse
Having ascertained that the solar greenhouse represents an element of the envelope useful for the control of thermo-hygrometric flows and for the improvement of living comfort, it is necessary to specify that before making any type of decision it is good to know the laws that regulate the installation. Currently at national level there is no single regulation
but each region applies specific provisions, however some principles are valid throughout the Italian territory. Two of the most important aspects concerning the greenhouse and which also determine its correct functioning, are the orientation and its position. In this regard, the north-south axis facing south is preferable.
It is also necessary to respect precise distances from the borders which can sometimes vary from town to town, depending on the geomorphological characteristics of the place. From a dimensional point of view, the net surface area of the bioclimatic greenhouse cannot exceed 15% of the total area of the building in question. Furthermore, in some Italian municipalities specific provisions are dictated regarding the maximum depth that the solar greenhouse must have.
Another essential aspect regards the benefits that each greenhouse must be able to provide, first of all the reduction of at least 10% of the energy requirement for winter heating. This is an objective that must be achieved without the aid of air conditioning systems
but only through the bioclimatic behavior of this passive solar system. In addition, the captive greenhouse must be managed correctly during the day, in order to avoid climatic discomfort, due to low performance in winter and overheating in summer. With this in mind, it is important to choose the technological solutions suitable for this purpose and to opt for low dispersant materials and mobile shielding systems. In any case, if you want to install a bioclimatic solar greenhouse, you need to obtain the necessary authorizations for the correct construction, checking the current regulations at the regional level and the hypothetical changes at the municipal level. An essential prerogative is then constituted by the urban planning regularity of the building concerned with the insertion of the greenhouse, after a specific municipal control.
The most common types of bioclimatic greenhouse.
The bioclimatic greenhouse constitutes a body in its own right which, despite being considered a technical room that does not affect the building's volume, has a material footprint. The position that the greenhouse assumes with respect to the building subject to intervention also determines its type. In fact, bioclimatic greenhouses can be attached, encased and semi-encased. The attached greenhouses
consist of three independent glass walls and a single vertical surface shared with the building to which they belong. In this case also the cover is made of glass and usually inclined. The second type is represented by the built-in solar greenhouses
, characterized by the sharing of most of the surface with the building concerned. In fact, three of the four transparent walls are in common with the building and the roof is opaque.
Finally, the third type of storage greenhouse that can be chosen according to your needs, consists of the semi-incorporated greenhouse which contains the characteristics of the two previous solutions. In fact, this type of greenhouse has side walls and a roof partially attached to the building.
In these three cases, solar gain solutions are classified according to the physical peculiarities they present. However, it is also possible to establish a typological subdivision according to the operation.
In these terms, the analyzed aspect is represented by the behavior of the sun's rays and the heat transmitted by the walls of the greenhouse to the internal rooms of the building concerned.
The first solutions consist of direct solar gain greenhouses
which, thanks to the transparency of the wall that divides them from the internal space, guarantee the direct flow of the incident solar rays and the heat they produce. The heat filters and once passed indoors it accumulates on the floor surface to be distributed at a later time. The second type is represented by solar greenhouses that work through convective exchange
, according to which heat passes from the greenhouse environment to the interior of the inhabited spaces. For the correct functioning of this type, forced ventilation ducts are inserted in the upper and lower part of the wall, useful for the transmission of heat in the rooms adjacent to the greenhouse and in the more distant ones. Finally, the third type of captive greenhouse works with the radiant exchange
according to which the heat is transmitted inside the building through an accumulation wall without insulation. In this case, the transmission will take place when the confined spaces will begin to cool and will therefore need to be heated.
Regardless of the type chosen, the bioclimatic greenhouse represents an excellent solution for the thermal improvement of your building. Used since ancient times to optimize the climatic conditions necessary for the growth of plant species, it has developed over time, finding wide use in different areas. In some northern European countries, today solar greenhouses are additional rooms for residences, thanks to which they can enjoy greater natural brightness and warmth during the colder seasons.
To learn more about the topic of heat exchange click here
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