Scheme on the interactions between soil and atmosphere
The diagram shows the diurnal evolution of the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (Stull 1988) - Scrambled layer: heated from below, thermal and mechanical turbulence. - Stable layer: the temperature increases with altitude, so it is very stable (little mixed)
- Residual layer: neutral stratification; can trap pollutants until the next day - Surface layer: 10% of the planetary boundary layer, close to the surface. The turbulence is homogeneous, different from the rest of the planetary limit state.