In the field of civil engineering, the study of structural foundations implies a thorough knowledge of geotechnics, construction science and construction engineering. The type of foundation used from time to time depends on the stress acting on it and on the type of soil to which it is connected; the foundation must be laid on ground with adequate bearing capacity for the loads of the structure.
We can divide the foundations into two families:
Superficial (or direct) foundations
: plinth, foundation beam, foundation plate, also called platea.
Deep (or indirect) foundations
: foundation pile, micropile. To which to add the supporting works: wall in contact with the ground, diaphragm, tie rod.
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