Deterioration and remedies
Over the years, the roof may be subjected to excessive stress and the materials that compose it may be damaged or be affected by the action of time. If the roof is in conditions of aesthetic and performance compromise, it is necessary to understand whether a structural intervention or the simple replacement of the elements that make up the roofing layer is necessary.
The first step is to identify the structural type of the roof. In the case of a wooden structure characterized by beams and joists, the probability of the formation of thermal bridges is lower and the deterioration will concern the individual joists which may deteriorate over time and the occurrence of possible infiltrations. In this case, the intervention consists in removing the damaged joists and replacing them with new elements.
On the other hand, if it is a masonry roof
, since it consists of prefabricated reinforced concrete and brick beams, the probability of thermal bridges will be higher than the roof with a wooden structure. For this reason, it is essential to provide an intervention on the insulating layers and on the roof covering, in order to restore the original performances. As for the materials used for the thermal insulation of the building, the choice is varied: ranging from polyurethane foam, rock wool, glass wool, up to wood and cellulose fibers.
In recent decades, one of the most used solutions in construction is represented by the ventilated roof
, characterized by an air chamber interposed between the insulating layer and the outermost layer. In fact, thanks to the ventilation that will form, the steam will not accumulate and the thermal performance of the building will improve significantly, especially during the summer season.
In the construction of the ventilated roof, an air chamber is left between the roof covering and the insulating layer in order to dispose of excess steam and ensure the building optimal thermal comfort
To view the technical drawing of a ventilated wooden roof click here
From a technological point of view, the innovative systems used in the roofing of new buildings consist of monolithic panels that enjoy a good level of insulation and ensure correct ventilation even within urban scenarios where the progressive overbuilding has led to the formation of islands. heat. In addition, according to the EU Construction Products Regulation of 2011, these panels must ensure excellent performance from the point of view of fire safety, thermal and acoustic insulation and the healthiness of the environments.
As for the roof covering, it can be characterized by different materials depending on its conformation and the characteristics of the context in which the building stands. In fact, in most cases, tiles are used but if you are inside restricted historic centers, tile roofs will be more suitable. If the building is free from constraints, the replacement of the roof covering can be performed through the use of Portuguese tiles characterized by a wider curvature that favors the passage of air in the case of ventilated roofs.
Given that in order to remedy the damage found on the roof, we often proceed with the replacement or insertion of the insulating layer, it is necessary to understand how to intervene. There are two most common solutions aimed at optimizing coverage performance. The first is represented by the insulation on the extrados
of the roof which consists in inserting the most suitable insulation between the waterproofing sheath and the roof tiles. Usually, this intervention is carried out in existing buildings where the attic area is inhabited.
The second methodology is that of the intrados insulation
of the roof covering. In this case, the insulated panels are inserted inside the roof structure, through laying on the floor or hanging from appropriate supports. Subsequently, the finishing with vapor barriers and covering plasterboard modules will be taken care of.
As for the materials used for the manufacture of the insulating panels, they must have some peculiarities that are essential for the success of the intervention. First of all, the resistance to thermal changes followed by the impermeability to water. In addition, it is preferable to use natural fibers which, thanks to their porosity, will be able to absorb and release excess moisture. Finally, it is good that each material adopted complies with the CAM, Minimum Environmental Criteria, in accordance with the provisions of the D.M. 11 October 2017.
In conclusion, it is essential that first of all an analysis of the state of the roof is made, and that the cause and type of deterioration that has occurred is then identified. At a later time it is recommended to rely on a qualified professional to intervene correctly and invest the right budget to solve the situation. It goes without saying that any type of intervention must comply with the legislation in terms of safety and respect for the landscape if there are constraints. In addition, with the introduction of the 110% Superbonus it is convenient to intervene on damaged roofs through technical solutions which, in addition to being facilitated in economic terms, will bring a significant improvement in terms of energy and performance.
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